Trimethoprim

Trimethoprim (TMP) is an antibiotic that is used to treat certain types of urinary tract, ear and intestinal infections that are caused by bacteria. It is is commonly included in combination antibiotics with Sulfamtheoxazole, Dapsone and other Sulfonamide antibiotics.

Trimethoprim inhibits the ability of bacteria to synthesize vitamin B9 (Folate) by a mechanism that complements the antibacterial activity of Sulfonamide antibiotics.

Trimethoprim is occasionally used alone as a treatment for acne. There is limited clinical research into the efficacy of Trimethoprim alone as an acne treatment, but some acne patients have reported positive results with this medication.

Laboratory testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be moderately susceptible to Trimethoprim, but Trimethoprim-resistant P. acnes are becoming more common in some places.

The combination of Trimethoprim plus Sulfamethoxazole (CoTrimoxazole) is a more common and effective acne treatment. Oral Cotrimoxazole can be a very effective treatment for some individuals with moderate to severe inflammatory acne symptoms. CoTrimoxazole is a popular choice for acne patients who have not responded to other types of antibiotics (eg. Doxycycline, Minocycline, Erythromycin).

Tobramycin

Tobramycin (Tobrex) is an antibiotic in the Aminoglycoside family. It is used topically to treat certain kinds of bacterial infections of the skin and eye.

Tobramycin is rarely used as a treatment for acne. Tobramycin has minimal activity against most gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. Laboratory testing has consistently confirmed that P. acnes bacteria are highly resistant to members of the Aminoglycoside antibiotic family. It is unlikely that Tobramycin will be an effective treatment for most individuals with acne.

Thiamphenicol

Thiamphenicol (Biothicol) is an antibiotic in the Amphenicol family. It is primarily used to treat certain types of urinary tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections.

Thiamphenicol is rarely used for the treatment of acne. Thiamphenicol is not approved for human use in all countries, but it is widely used in other countries.

Laboratory testing indicates that acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes bacteria are moderately susceptible to Thiamphenicol, as well as it’s closely-related cousin Chloramphenicol. High-level antibiotic resistance to to Thiamphenicol among P. acnes bacteria is rare. There is also a small amount of clinical research that suggests Thiamphenicol can be an effective treatment for individuals with moderate to severe acne.

Additional research and patient reports are needed to determine the best role (if any) of Thiamphenicol in acne treatment regimens.

Tetracycline

Tetracycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic in the Tetracycline family. It is used to treat many different kinds of bacterial infections, including those of the respiratory tract, urinary tract and skin.

Tetracycline was once a popular acne treatment, but it has largely been replaced by two closely related antibiotics – Doxycycline and Minocycline. Tetracycline is available in oral and topical formulations, both of which are used as acne treatments.

Tetracycline can be an effective acne treatment, but tetracycline-resistant P. acnes bacteria are becoming common in many regions of the world. Some acne patients find that Tetracycline significantly improves their acne symptoms. But many other patients (particularly those from the United States and Europe) find that antibiotics in the Tetracycline family are ineffective treatments for controlling their acne symptoms.

Telithromycin

Telithromycin (Ketek) is an antibiotic in the Macrolide family. It is primarily used to treat certain types of bacterial respiratory infections.

Telithromycin is rarely used as a treatment for acne symptoms. There have been some safety concerns about the effect that this antibiotic has on the liver. The use of this medication in the United States was curtailed in 2007, and it is not widely used and may not be available in all countries.

Tedizolid

Tedizolid (Sivextro) is an antibiotic in the Oxazolidinone family. It is primarily used for the treatment of certain types of bacterial skin infections. Tedolizid is a relatively new antibiotic that is not yet widely used and may not be available in all countries.

Tedolizid is rarely used as a treatment for acne. There is very little clinical research or laboratory testing on the effectiveness of Tedolizid for the treatment of acne. It is not currently marketed as an acne treatment. However, laboratory testing has shown that Tedizolid does have activity against many gram-positive bacteria, a group that includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium.

Tedizolid is an antibiotic that warrants further investigation into its utility as an acne treatment. Because this medication is not available in generic form, it will likely be substantially more expensive than many alternative antibiotics.

Sulfathiazole

Sulfathiazole (Sulfatiazol) is an antibiotic in the Sulfonamide family. It is used as a topical antibacterial to prevent and treat bacterial infections of the skin.

Sulfathiazole is occasionally used as a topical treatment for acne. This medication is often combined with other antibiotics (eg. Penicillin, Trimethoprim) in topical antibacterial ointments.

There is limited clinical or laboratory research into the effectiveness of Sulfathiazole for the treatment of acne symptoms. However, laboratory testing does indicate that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to moderately susceptible to antibiotics in the Sulfonamide family, such as Sulfathiazole.

Topical ointments that combine Sulfathiazole with a complementary antibiotic (eg. Penicillin G) are more likely to be effective at improving acne symptoms than Sulfathiazole alone. Topical Sulfathiazole may better control acne symptoms when be combined with complementary therapies.

A very old medical report (1951) suggested that direct injection of a Sulfathiazole solution into inflammatory acne cysts was an effective treatment, but this approach has not been widely practiced. Other members of the Sulfonamide family (eg. Dapsone, Silver Sulfadiazine, Sulfacetamide) are more commonly used as topical treatments for acne.

Sulfamethoxazole

Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is an antibiotic in the Sulfonamide family. It is used to treat certain types of respiratory tract, urinary tract and skin infections that are caused by bacteria. Sulfamethoxazole is rarely used alone. It is primarily available in combination with another antibiotic called Trimethoprim. This combination is called Co-Trimoxazole, and it is a very common antibiotic.

Sulfamethoxazole is rarely used by itself as a treatment for acne. However, Co-Trimoxazole is a popular treatment for moderate to severe acne symptoms. Both clinical research and laboratory testing indicates that Co-Trimoxazole can be an excellent acne treatment, particularly for individuals with inflammatory acne symptoms.

Laboratory testing has indicated that the acne-causing P. acnes bacteria is moderately susceptible to Sulfamethoxazole. P. acnes bacteria are also moderately susceptible to Trimethoprim. These two antibiotics are synergistic, and the combination is substantially more toxic to P. acnes bacteria.

Sulfafurazole

Sulfafurazole is an antibiotic in the Sulfonamide family. It is a short-lived antibiotic that is active against certain types of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This medication is not available in all countries and it is not a commonly used medication.

Sulfisoxazole is rarely used to treat acne. For the treatment of active acne symptoms, other Sulfonamide family antibiotic (eg. Sulfamethoxazole, Dapsone, Silver Sulfadiazine) are much more commonly used.

Sulfadoxine

Sulfadoxine (Sulphadoxine) is an antibiotic in the Sulfonamide family. It is primarily used in combination with Pyrimethamine for the treatment of malaria.

Sulfadoxine is rarely used as a treatment for acne. There is minimal clinical research or laboratory testing on the utility of Sulfadoxine as an acne treatment. Laboratory testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is tends to be moderately sensitive to Sulfonamide family antibiotics, such as Sulfadoxine.

For the treatment of active acne symptoms, other Sulfonamide family antibiotics (eg. Sulfamethoxazole, Dapsone. Sulfadiazine) are more commonly prescribed.

Sulfadimethoxine

Sulfadimethoxine (Albon) is an antibiotic in the Sulfonamide family. It is primarily used in veterinary medicine, but it is approved for human use in several countries (eg. Russia).

Sulfadimethoxine is rarely used as an acne treatment. For the treatment of active acne symptoms, other oral Sulfonamide antibiotics (eg. Sulfamethoxazole) are far more commonly prescribed. Sulfadimethoxazole is primarily available in oral formulations.

Clinical research on this medication as an acne treatment is limited. But the research that does exist indicates that Sulfadimethoxine is a partially effective treatment for patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris. However, this research also found that Tetracycline and Erythromycin were substantially more effective than Sulfadimethoxine.

Sulfacetamide

Sulfacetamide is a topical antibiotic in the Sulfonamide family. It is used to topically to treat certain types of skin infections, including acne. Sulfacetamide is available in topical formulation by itself or in combination with Sulfur.

Sulfacetamide is commonly used to treat acne symptoms and it is marketed directly for this purpose. Research and patient reports indicate that Sulfacetamide is effective for some patients, particularly those with mild to moderate acne symptoms. Laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be moderately susceptible to Sulfonamide family antibiotics, such as Sulfacetamide.

Spiramycin

Spiramycin (Spirex) is an antibiotic in the Macrolide family. It has both antibacterial and antiparasitic properties. Spiramycin is used to treat a limited range of infections, and this medication is not available in all countries.

Spiramycin is rarely used as a treatment for acne. There is minimal clinical research into the efficacy of Spiramycin as an acne treatment. Other members of the Macrolide family (eg. Erythromycin, Azithromycin, etc) are more widely available and commonly used. Laboratory testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacteria is less susceptible to Spiramycin than to other Macrolide family antibiotics.

Sparfloxacin

Sparfloxacin (Zospar) is an antibiotic in the Quinolone family. It is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract and skin.

Sparfloxacin is rarely used as a treatment for acne. There is minimal clinical research into the efficacy of Sparfloxacin as a treatment for active acne symptoms. However, laboratory testing does suggest that Sparfloxacin has certain properties that could make it a uniquely effective acne treatment.

Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is highly sensitive to Sparfloxacin. In addition, Sparfloxacin is absorbed by certain types of white blood cells, which may help the immune system better control the growth of acne-causing bacteria. Lastly, Sparfloxacin has been shown to accumulate in the skin following oral administration.

More research is needed on the utility of Sparfloxacin for the treatment of acne, but it is an antibiotic that deserves further investigation.

Sparfloxacin is only available in oral formulations and this medication is not available in all countries (eg. United States).

Silver Sulfadiazine

Silver Sulfadiazine (Silvadene) is an antibiotic in the Sulfonamide family. Silver Sulfadiazine also contains ionic silver, which has antibacterial properties. Silver Sulfadiazine is used to treat certain types of bacterial skin infections, and is commonly used to prevent secondary infections in burn patients.

Silver Sulfadiazine is occasionally used as a topical treatment for acne. Although there is minimal clinical research on the efficacy of Silver Sulfadiazine for the treatment of acne, some patients have reported that this medication helped improve their acne symptoms.

Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be moderately susceptible to Sulfonamide antibiotics, including Sulfadiazine. Silver Sulfadiazine is likely to be most effective when combined with complementary systemic or topical acne treatments. Silver Sulfadiazine is a medication that deserves further investigation into its utility as an acne treatment.

Roxithromycin

Roxithromycin (Roxicin) is an antibiotic in the Macrolide family. It is used to treat certain types of respiratory, urinary and soft tissue infections that are caused by susceptible bacteria.

Roxithromycin is occasionally used to treat acne. Clinical research has indicated that Roxithromycin (and other Macrolide family antibiotics) can be effective acne treatments. Roxithromycin may be particularly helpful for the treatment of acne because this antibiotic can accumulate inside of certain types of white blood cells. This accumulation may help the immune system better control the growth of the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. This accumulation may also help limit the inflammation that causes acne symptoms such as pimples, nodules, cysts and scars.

Laboratory testing has demonstrated that Macrolide family antibiotics, including Roxithromycin, are active against P. acnes bacteria. However, P. acnes bacteria that are highly resistant to Macrolide family antibiotics are becoming increasingly common in many places in the world. Patients with acne infections caused by these resistant bacteria are less likely to see a benefit from antibiotic therapy with Roxithromycin, and other Macrolides.

Roxithromycin is not available in all countries (eg. United States).

Rifapentine

Rifapentine (Priftin) is an antibiotic in the Rifamycin family. It is an important component of the combination antibiotic therapy used to treat tuberculosis, and other mycobacterial infections.

Rifapentine is not generally used in the treatment of acne. Laboratory testing indicates that the acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes bacterium is highly sensitive to Rifamycin family antibiotics, including Rifapentine.

Rifapentine and other Rifamycin family antibiotics may be useful components of comprehensive treatment regimens for people with severe acne symptoms. Additional clinical research and patient reports are needed to evaluate the utility of this family of antibiotics for the treatment of acne.

Rifampicin

Rifampicin (Rifampin) is an antibiotic in the Rifamycin family. It is an important component of the combination antibiotic therapy used to treat tuberculosis. Rifampicin is used to treat several types of infections, particularly those that are caused by anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, which is a group of bacteria that includes the acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes bacterium.

Rifampicin is occasionally used to treat certain types of severe acne. Laboratory testing indicates that P. acnes bacteria are very sensitive to Rifamycin family antibiotics, including Rifampicin. There is also some clinical research that suggests Rifampicin can be helpful for patients with moderate to severe acne symptoms.

Rifampicin and other Rifamycin family antibiotics may be useful components of comprehensive treatment regimens for people with severe acne symptoms. Additional clinical research and patient reports are needed to evaluate the utility of this family of antibiotics for the treatment of acne.

Rifampicin can inhibit the activity of hormonal birth control. Sexually active women of child-bearing age should take additional precautions to prevent pregnancy while taking this medication. Rifampicin is very inexpensive in many parts of the world, but the monthly cost can be quite high in certain countries (eg. United States).

Rifabutin

Rifabutin (Mycobutin) is an antibiotic in the Rifamycin family. It is primarily used in the treatment of mycobacterial infections (eg. tuberculosis).

Rifabutin is rarely used for the treatment of acne and their is very little clinical research into the efficacy of Rifabutin as an acne treatment.

Rifabutin is active against many gram-positive bacteria, including the acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes. Laboratory testing indicates that P. acnes bacteria are very sensitive to Rifamycin family antibiotics, including Rifabutin.

Rifamycin family antibiotics may be useful components of acne treatment regimens, particularly for individuals with moderate to severe acne symptoms. But more clinical research and patient reports are needed to evaluate the utility of this family of antibiotics for the treatment of acne.

Retapamulin

Retapamulin is a an antibiotic in the Pleuromutilin family. It is used as a topical treatment for certain kinds of skin bacterial infections, including acne.

Retapamulin is a relatively new antibiotic that is quickly becoming a popular treatment for acne. In laboratory testing, Retapamulin has shown excellent antibacterial activity against the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. Research and patient reports also suggest that Retapamulin can be an effective acne treatment, particularly when combined with complementary therapies (eg. Oral Antibiotics, Retinoids, Light and Laser Therapies, etc).

Retapamulin is still under patent protection and this antibiotic can be substantially more expensive than many other topical acne treatments. It may not be available in all regions.

Pristinamycin

Pristinamycin (Pyostacine) is an antibiotic that is used to treat certain types of infections caused by gram-positive bacteria (eg. Staph infections). Pristinamycin is a natural combination of two complementary antibiotics – Pristinamycin IA an Pristinamycin IIA. Pristinamycin IA is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic, and Pristinamycin IIA is in the Macrolide family of antibiotics.

Pristinamycin is rarely used as an acne treatment, but laboratory testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is susceptible to Pristinamycin. Pristinamycin is occasionally used to treat non-acne infections that are caused by P. acnes bacteria.

Pristinamycin is only available in a few countries. But in countries where it is available, Pristinamycin is an antibiotic that warrants further investigation as an acne treatment.

Penicillin V

Penicillin V (Phenoxymethylpenicillin) is an antibiotic in the Penicillin family. Penicillin V is used to treat many different types of bacterial infections. This antibiotic is primarily active against gram-positive bacteria, which includes the acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes bacterium.

Penicillin V is available in topical and oral formulations. Penicillin V is occasionally used as an oral antibiotic for the treatment of acne. For topical use, the closely-related Penicillin G is more commonly prescribed.

Penicillin V and Penicillin G are notable because they consistently score very well in laboratory testing of antibiotic susceptibility of the P. acnes bacterium. These antibiotics kill P. acnes bacteria at very low concentrations, and Penicillin-resistant P. acnes bacteria are very uncommon.

Clinical research and patient reports have indicated that oral treatment with Penicillin family antibiotics (eg. Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Penicillin V) is effective at improving acne symptoms for many patients. The topical use of Penicillin also appears to be a useful acne treatment.

Penicillin G

Penicillin G (Benzylpenicillin) is an antibiotic in the Penicillin family. Penicillin G is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. This antibiotic is primarily active against gram-positive bacteria, which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium.

Penicillin G is occasionally used in the treatment of acne, usually as a topical treatment. For oral antibiotic treatment, Penicillin V (which is closely related to Penicillin G) is much more popular than Penicillin G because it is more stable in the digestive tract.

Penicillin G and Penicillin V are notable because they consistently score very well in laboratory testing of antibiotic susceptibility of the P. acnes bacterium. These antibiotics kill P. acnes bacteria at very low concentrations, and Penicillin-resistant P. acnes bacteria are very uncommon. Clinical research and patient reports have indicated that oral treatment with Penicillin family antibiotics (eg. Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Penicillin V) can be very effective at improving acne symptoms for many patients.

Topical Penicillin G appears to be a useful treatment for acne. Creams and ointments that contain Penicillin G are available Over The Counter (OTC) in many countries. Penicillin-containing ointments are especially popular in Central and South America. Several of these ointments combine Penicillin G with a complementary antibiotic from a different antibiotic family (eg. Sulfonamide).

Clinical research on the use of these Penicillin G combination ointments for acne treatment is currently limited. But patient reports and laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing both suggest that some of these combination ointments (eg. Penicillin plus Sulfathiazole) may be uniquely effective acne treatments. More research is needed, but this subset of topical antibiotic treatments clearly warrants greater interest from the acne community.

Paromomycin

Paromomycin (Gabbroral) is an antibiotic in the Aminoglycoside family. It is used to a limited subset of skin and digestive tract infections.

Paromomycin is available in topical and oral formulations. Topical Paromomycin is rarely used as an acne treatment, and it is only available in some countries. Oral Paromomycin is never used as an acne treatment because this medication is not absorbed into the bloodstream from the digestive tract.

Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the acne-causing P. acnes bacteria is naturally resistant to Aminoglycoside family antibiotics, including Paromomycin.

Oxytetracycline

Oxytetracycline is an antibiotic in the Tetracycline family. It is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is used to treat a range of bacterial infections, including those of the respiratory tract, urinary tract and skin.

Oxytetracycline was a very common acne treatment in the 20th century. Oxytetracycline is still occasionally used as an acne treatment, but other Tetracycline family antibiotics (eg. Minocycline, Doxycycline) are increasingly used for this purpose. Oxytetracycline is available in oral and topical formulations.

Clinical studies have reported that Oxytetracycline can be a very effective treatment for some patients with moderate to severe acne symptoms. Unfortunately, acne-causing P. acnes bacteria that are resistant to Oxytetracycline (and other Tetracycline family antibiotics) are becoming increasingly common in many places around the world. In head-to-head testing, the newer generation of Tetracycline antibiotics (eg. Minocycline, Doxycycline) tend to be more effective at killing P. acnes bacteria and controlling acne symptoms than the older Tetracycline antibiotics, such as Oxytetracycline. However, this may vary from region to region.

Ofloxacin

Ofloxacin (Floxin) is an antibiotic in the Quinolone family. Ofloxacin is a mixture of two closely related molecules, Levofloxacin and Dextrofloxacin. Levofloxacin provides the majority of the antibacterial activity of Oflaxcin. The use of Oflaxcin has declined in recent years as a pure Levofloxacin (Levaquin) has become more widely available.

Ofloxacin is rarely used to treat active acne. There is little clinical research about the efficacy of Ofloxacin as a treatment for acne. However, laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is generally sensitive to Quinolone family antibiotics, including Ofloxacin.

Ofloxacin is available in oral and topical formulations. For the treatment of acne, other Quinolone family antibiotics (eg. Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Ciprofloxacin) are generally preferred over Ofloxacin.

Topical Ofloxacin may be useful as an acne treatment. But laboratory and clinical research suggest that other topically-applied Quinolones (eg. Nadifloxacin) may be better suited for use in treating acne.

Norfloxacin

Norfloxacin (Norflox) is an antibiotic in the Quinolone family. It is a broad spectrum antibiotic that is used to treat certain types of respiratory, urinary tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections.

Norfloxacin is rarely used as an acne treatment, and there is little clinical research into the effectiveness of Norfloxacin for improving acne symptoms. Other Quinolone family antibiotics (eg. Ciprofloxacin, Nadifloxacin) are more commonly used in acne treatments.

Laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing has indicated that more strains of P. acnes bacteria are resistant to Norfloxacin, than other comparable Quinolone antibiotics. When a strain of P. acnes is susceptible to Norfloxacin, sensitivity to this antibiotic tends to be similar to that of Ciprofloxacin.

Norfloxacin has been reported to have a higher rate of adverse events compared to other members of the Quinolone antibiotic family. Because of this, and the fact that there is little evidence that Norfloxacin is significantly better than alternative antibiotics, the use of Norfloxacin is fairly limited in many regions.

Norfloxacin is generally used as an oral antibiotic, but topical formulations are available in some regions.

Nitrofurantoin

Nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin) is an antibiotic that is used to treat certain kinds of bacterial infections, primarily urinary tract infections. Nitrofurantoin is not a commonly used antibiotic, but the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has generated renewed interest in this medication.

Nitrofurantoin is rarely used as a treatment for acne. There is very little clinical or laboratory research into the effectiveness of Nitrofurantoin as a treatment for active acne symptoms, or into the sensitivity of the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium to this antibiotic. However, laboratory testing does indicate that gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes P. acnes, tend to be susceptible to Nitrofurantoin.

Additional clinical testing and patient surveys will be required to evaluate the utility of Nitrofurantoin as a component of acne treatment regimens.

Neosporin

Neosporin is a topical antibiotic ointment that is a combination of three medications – Neomycin, Polymyxin B and Bacitracin. Neopsporin is a very popular Over The Counter (OTC) topical antibacterial treatment for minor skin injuries and infections.

P. acnes bacterium has some natural resistance to each of the antibiotics included in Neosporin.

Neomycin

Neomycin is an antibiotic in the Aminoglycoside family. It is primarily available as a topical ointment and is used to treat certain types of skin infections. Neomycin is often combined with other antibiotics into combination topical ointments (eg. Neosporin) that are used in first aid skin care.

Topical Neomycin ointment is rarely used as a treatment for acne. Many gram-positive bacteria, including the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium, are naturally resistant to Neomycin and other Aminoglycoside family antibiotics. There is limited clinical research into the effectiveness of topical Neomycin as a treatment for active acne.

Neomycin-containing topical ointments, such as Neosporin, are most commonly used to prevent infection and accelerate healing after draining an acne lesion (popping/lancing a pimple).

Nalidixic Acid

Nalidixic Acid (Wintomylon) is an antibiotic in the Quinolone family. It is primarily used to treat certain infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.

Nalidixic Acidis rarely used as an acne treatment. Nalidixic Acid has weak antibacterial against most gram-positive bacteria, which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. Laboratory testing indicates that many strains of P. acnes bacteria are highly resistant to Nalidixic Acid. There is little clinical research and few patient reports about the efficacy of Nalidixic Acid as a treatment for acne.

Nadifloxacin

Nadifloxacin (Nadixa) is a topical antibiotic in the Quinolone family. Nadifloxacin is used to treat certain types of bacterial skin infections.

Nadifloxacin is occassionally used for the treatment of acne. Clinical research and patient reports suggest that Nadifloxacin can be a very useful acne treatment, particularly when combined with complementary therapies. Laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be sensitive to Nadifloxacin.

Nadifloxacin< is not approved for use in all countries (eg. United States). But Nadifloxacin is an exciting new topical treatment for acne that is likely to become more commonly used for acne patients.

Mupirocin

Mupirocin is a topical antibiotic that is used to treat certain types of bacterial skin infections, including acne.

The use of Mupirocin for the treatment of acne is somewhat controversial. Many individuals have reported that using Mupirocin helped improve their acne symptoms. However, laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing has shown that many strains of the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium are naturally resistant to Mupirocin. Because of this natural resistance, Mupriocin is frequently ineffective as an acne treatment.

Mupirocin is also used to treat a variety of skin infections that are caused by gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The activity of Mupirocin against other types of bacteria than P. acnes, may explain some of the benefit that certain patients have reported.

Moxifloxacin

Moxifloxacin (Avelox) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic in the Quinolone family. Moxifloxacin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is widely available in oral and topical (opthalmic) formulations.

Moxifloxacin is rarely used as a treatment for acne. But there is some evidence to suggest that Moxifloxacin can be a useful acne treatment. Laboratory testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is moderately more susceptible to Moxifloxacin than Ciprofloxacin, which is a more commonly used antibiotic in the Quinolone family.

Minocycline

Minocycline (Minocin) is a broad spectrum antibiotic in the Tetracycline family. It is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including Lyme disease and acne.

Minocycline is one of the most commonly prescribed oral antibiotics for the treatment of acne symptoms. There is a large amount of clinical research and numerous patient reports that demonstrate Minocycline can significantly improve acne symptoms for many individuals. However, Minocycline is not an effective acne treatment for all people.

Laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacteria is generally very sensitive to Minocycline. However, Minocycline-resistant P. acnes bacteria are becoming common in many regions of the world. This problem is particularly widespread in Europe and North America. Patients with acne caused by these resistant bacteria are unlikely to benefit from treatment with Minocycline, or other Tetracycline family antibiotics (eg. Doxycycline).

Minocycline tends to be a little more effective at improving acne symptoms than Doxycycline and Tetracycline. However, the risk of side effects when using Minocycline is a little higher than with Doxycycline.

Metronidazole

Metronidazole (Flagyl) is an antibiotic and antiparasitic medication. It can be used both topically and orally to treat certain types of infection.

Metronidazole is occassionally used as a treatment for acne. Metronidazole is usually applied topically when used for the treatment of acne symptoms.

Metronidazole has been reported by some patients to improve their acne symptoms. But the use of Metronidazole as an acne treatment is somewhat controversial. On one hand, several clinical studies have reported that topical Metronidazole is an effective treatment for acne, especially a specific type of acne – Acne Rosacea. On the other hand, laboratory testing has consistently indicated that the acne-causing P. acnes bacteria is naturally resistant to Metronidazole.

Continued clinical investigation and patient surveys will be required to determine the utility of Metronidazole for the treatment of acne.

Mafenide

Mafenide is an antibiotic in the Sulfonamide family. Mafenide is a topical antibiotic that is used to treat certain kinds of skin infections. It is commonly used to treat burn injuries and prevent secondary infections.

Mafenide is rarely used as an acne treatment. However, there have been some patient reports that suggest that Mafenide can be a useful treatment for people with mild to moderate acne symptoms. Laboratory testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be moderately sensitive to Sulfonamide family antibiotics, such as Mafenide.

Topical Mafenide may be most effective when combined with a complementary treatment as part of a comprehensive acne treatment plan.

Lymecycline

Lymecycline (Tetralysal) is an antibiotic in the Tetracycline family. It is used to treat certain types of respiratory, skin and sexually-transmitted bacterial infections.

Lymecycline is occasionally used as an acne treatment, but is a less common treatment for acne than other Tetracycline family antibiotics (eg. Minocycline, Doxycycline). Lymecycline is administered orally when used as an acne treatment.

Lymecycline can be an effective treatment for mild to severe acne symptoms in some patients. Clinical testing has indicated that the efficacy of Lymecycline as an acne treatment is comparable to that of Minocycline. Unfortunately, acne-causing P. acnes bacteria that are broadly resistant to Tetracycline family antibiotics (including Lymecycline) are becoming common in many regions of the world. Because the increase in tetracycline-resistant P. acnes bacteria, this family of antibiotics is ineffective for many patients.

Linezolid

Linezolid (Zyvox) is an antibiotic in the Oxazolidinone family. Linezolid is used to treat certain types of skin and respiratory infections. It has antibacterial activity against many Gram-positive bacteria, including the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium.

Linezolid is rarely used as a treatment for acne. Linezolid is only recommended for short-term use, long-term use of Linezolid can cause significant side effects. Therefore, the utility of Linezolid as an acne treatment would be limited to short-term use for the purpose of treating acute cases of severe inflammatory acne.

Linezolid is a relatively new antibiotic that was approved by the FDA (United States) in 2000. In many countries where generic Linezolid is not available (eg. United States) this medication can be very expensive.

Levofloxacin

Levofloxacin (Levoflox) is an antibiotic in the Quinolone family. It is used to treat a range of bacterial infections, including respiratory, eye and urinary tract infections.

Levofloxacin is rarely used as an acne treatment. However, laboratory testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is generally susceptible to this antibiotic. Several studies have indicated that oral Levofloxacin may be more effective at controlling acne symptoms than other members of the Quinolone antibiotic family (eg. Ciprofloxacin).

Levofloxacin is available in oral and topical formulations. Oral Levofloxacin is a more commonly used as an acne treatment than topical Levofloxacin. Topical Levofloxacin is generally available as an opthalmic ointment, but these medications can be applied directly to the skin.

Josamycin

Josamycin (Josaxin) is an antibiotic in the Macrolide family. It is used to treat certain types of bacterial infection, particularly those caused by anaerobic bacteria.

Josamycin is rarely used as an acne treatment. Laboratory testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes is moderately susceptible to this antibiotic. Additionally, Josamycin may retain antibacterial activity against some P. acnes bacteria that are resistant to other Macrolide antibiotics (eg. Erythromycin).

Josamycin has a moderately short half-life and is often taken multiple times a day. This drug is not recommended for people with liver problems. Josamycin is not approved for human use in all countries.

Isoniazid

Isoniazid (isonicotinylhydrazide) is an antibiotic that is part of the standard antibiotic regimen for treating tuberculosis infections.

Isoniazid is an antibiotic that is only active against a certain type of bacteria (Mycobacteria). Isoniazid is not used as a treatment for acne. In fact, Isoniazid use has been reported to increase acne symptoms in some patients.

Gramicidin

Gramicidin is a topical antibiotic that is used to treat certain skin infections that are caused by gram-positive bacteria. Gramicidin is commonly included with other antibiotics in combination antibacterial ointments for topical use.

Gramicidin is a mixture of several closely related antibacterial molecules, Gramicidin A, Gramicidin B and Gramicidin C.

Gramicidin containing ointments are occasionally used as topical treatments for acne symptoms. The acne-causing P. acnes bacterium appears to have some natural resistance to this antibiotic. It is also unclear whether topically applied Gramicidin penetrates the skin and reaches the sebaceous glands in significant concentrations.

Topical Gramicidin ointments are more likely to be effective at preventing secondary infections after acne lesions have been “popped” or drained, and these antibiotics may accelerate healing time and help prevent some scarring.

Gentamicin

Gentamicin (Garamycin) is an antibiotic in the Aminoglycoside family. Topical Gentamicin is used to treat certain skin infections that are caused by gram-negative bacteria.

Topical Gentamicin is rarely used as an acne treatment. This is largely due to the fact that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is naturally resistant to most Aminoglycoside antibiotics, including Gentamicin.

Gemifloxacin

Gemifloxacin (G-Cin) is a broad spectrum antibiotic in the Quinolone family. Gemifloxacin is used to treat certain types of bacterial respiratory infections.

Gemifloxacin is rarely used as an acne treatment, and there is minimal evidence regarding its efficacy for this purpose. Laboratory research indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacteria is moderately susceptible to Quinolone family antibiotics, including Gemifloxacin.

Gatifloxacin

Gatifloxacin (Tequin) is an antibiotic in the Quinolone family. Gatifloxacin is used to treat certain types of respiratory and eye infections.

Gatifloxacin is rarely used as a treatment for acne and there is limited evidence regarding its efficacy as an acne treatment. Other Quinolone family antibiotics are more commonly used in acne treatment regimens. Gatifloxacin is available in oral and topical formulations. The topical formulations are generally designed for opthalmic use, but Gatifloxacin ointments could be applied directly to the skin.

Gatifloxacin is associated with more frequent severe side effects than many other comparable antibiotics. Because of the elevated risk of side effects, Gatifloxacin is no longer available in many countries.

Fusidic Acid

Fusidic Acid (Fucidin) is an antibiotic that is primarily used to treat bacterial skin infections. It is a unique antibiotic that works by preventing susceptible bacteria from synthesizing new proteins.

Fusidic Acid has recently gained renewed interest as a treatment for acne. Topical Fusidic Acid has become a popular treatment for individuals with mild to moderate acne symptoms (Acne Types: 1-3). Fusidic Acid is also available in oral formulations, but these are rarely used as acne treatments.

Clinical research and patient reports suggest that topical Fusidic Acid can be an effective treatment for many people. Laboratory testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be moderately susceptible to Fusidic Acid. P. acnes bacteria that are highly resistant to Fusidic Acid appear to be rare in most places.

Topical Fusidic Acid is often combined with other therapies as part of a comprehensive acne treatment plan, especially for patients more serious cases of acne.

Fosfomycin

Fosfomycin (Munorol) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is used to treat certain urinary tract and respiratory infections. Fosfomycin works by inhibiting the development of bacterial cell walls.

Fosfomycin is rarely used for the treatment of acne, and laboratory testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is naturally resistant to this antibiotic.

Flucloxacillin

Flucloxacillin (Floxapen) is an antibiotic in the Penicillin family. Flucloxacillin is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic that is used to treat a subset of respiratory, skin and other bacterial infections.

Flucloxacillin is rarely used to treat acne. Laboratory research indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is susceptible to Penicillin family antibiotics, including Flucloxacillin. But there is little clinical research into the efficacy of Flucloxacillin as a treatment for acne.

Flucloxacillin is not currently available in all countries.

Finafloxacin

Finafloxacin (Xtoro) is an antibiotic in the Quinolone family. It was recently approved for use in the United States for the treatment of bacterial ear infections.

Finafloxacin is not currently used for the treatment of acne, but the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is likely to be sensitive to this antibiotic. For treating acne, other members of the Quinolone family (eg. Nadifloxacin, Ciproflocaxin) are more commonly used.

Erythromycin

Erythromycin is an antibiotic in the Macrolide Family. It is a widely used antibiotic that can be applied topically or ingested orally. Erythromycin is used to treat many types of bacterial infections, including those of the respiratory tract, urinary tract and skin.

Erythromycin is commonly used for the treatment of acne symptoms. Topical erythromycin is a popular choice for treating mild to moderate acne symptoms (Acne Types: 1-3). Oral Erythromycin is occasionally used as an acne treatment, but other Macrolide family antibiotics are often preferred for oral use because they tend to have fewer side effects.

Many clinical research and patient reports have shows Erythromycin can be an effective treatment for many individuals with acne. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is generally sensitive to Macrolide family antibiotics, including Erythromycin. However, P. acnes bacteria that are resistant to Erythromycin and other Macrolide antibiotics are becoming common in many regions of the world. Individuals with acne symptoms caused by these resistant bacteria are not likely to benefit from treatment with Erythromycin.

Erythromycin is often combined with benzoyl peroxide in topical formulations (eg. Benzamycin). Topical Erythromcyin is often combined with complementary treatments (eg. Oral Antibiotics, Retinoids, Hormonal Treatments, etc) as part of a comprehensive acne treatment plan.

Doxycycline

Doxycycline (Vibramycin) is an antibiotic in the Tetracycline family. Doxycycline is one of the most frequently used oral antibiotics for acne treatment. It is also used to treat certain types of skin, respiratory and sexually-transmitted infections that are caused by bacteria.

Doxycycline can be an effective treatment for many people with moderate to severe acne. A substantial amount of clinical research and positive patient reports support the use of Doxycycline for the treatment of acne.

Unfortunately, acne-causing P. acnes bacteria that are resistant to Doxycycline (and other Tetracycline antibiotics) are becoming increasingly common. Because of this antibiotic resistance, Doxycycline is ineffective for many patients.

Dirithromycin

Dirithromycin (Dynabac) is an antibiotic in the Macrolide family.

Dirithromycin is rarely used for the treatment of acne. There is little evidence on the efficacy of dirithromycin as an acne treatment. This medication is not currently available in all countries (eg. United States).

Dicloxacillin

Dicloxacillin (Diclocil) an antibiotic in the Penicillin family. Dicloxacillin is a narrow spectrum antibiotic that is used primarily against Gram-positive bacteria that produce an enzyme called beta lactamase. Dicloxacillin is used to treat a variety of skin infections that are caused by Staphylococcus bacteria.

Dicloxacillin is rarely used to treat acne. For the treatment of acne, other Penicillin family antibiotics (eg. Amoxicillin, Ampicillin) are more common. Laboratory research indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is very sensitive to Penicillins, including Dicloxacillin. Therefore, this medication may have some utility as an acne treatment. Dicloxacillin is widely available in combination with Amoxicillin or Ampicillin.

Demeclocycline

Demeclocycline (Declomycin) is an antibiotic in the Tetracycline family. Demeclocycline is a wide spectrum antibiotic that is used to treat a range of bacterial infections, including acne.

Demeclocycline is rarely used to treat acne, but other Tetracycline family antibiotics (eg. Minocycline, Doxycycline, Tetracycline) are commonly used as acne treatments.

Tetracycline family antibiotics can be very effective treatments for moderate to severe acne, but tetracycline-resistant acne infections are becoming increasingly common in many places.

Dapsone

Dapsone is an antibiotic in the Sulfonamide family. It is used to treat a range of infections, including Leprosy, respiratory and skin infections.

Dapsone was a popular choice for treating moderate to severe acne in the mid 20th century. But the use of dapsone as an acne treatment declined when oral Isotretinoin (Accutane) was introduced. However, Dapsone is now regaining popularity as an acne treatment.

Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be moderately susceptible to Dapsone. A wealth of clinical research demonstrates that oral Dapsone can be an effective treatment for individuals with inflammatory acne. Patients have also reported positive results from the use of topical Dapsone gel.

Dapsone is widely available in oral and topical formulations. Topical Dapsone is a relatively new formulation that is specifically marketed as an acne treatment. Cotrimoxazole (also in the Sulfonamide antibiotic family) is more commonly used oral antibiotic than Dapsone, but it is unclear which of these medications is a more effective acne treatment.

Cotrimoxazole

Cotrimoxazole is a combination of two antibiotics – Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole. Cotrimoxazole is used to treat many kinds of bacterial infections, such as urinary tract, respiratory and skin infections.

Sulfamethoxazole is a member of the Sulfonamide family. Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim work together to prevent bacteria from synthesizing folic acid, an essential B vitamin.

Cotrimoxazole is occasionally used to treat acne. Clinical research and patient reports suggest that cotrimoxazole can be a very effective treatment for some people with moderate to severe inflammatory acne (Acne Types:2-4). Clotrimoxazole is often effective for individuals who have not benefited from common anti-acne antibiotics (eg. Minocycline, Doxycycline, Clindamycin). Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacteria tends to be moderately susceptible to Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, individually. The combination (Cotrimoxazole) is substantially more toxic to P. acnes bacteria.

There is a greater risk of significant side effects and allergic reactions when using Cotrimoxazole than many of the other oral antibiotics used to treat acne. In particular, Cotrimoxazole has been associated with an auto-immune reaction called Stevens Johnson syndrome, which can be life-threatening. Although the risk is small, this may explain why Cotrimoxazole is not more widely used for the treatment of acne. Individuals with a history of allergic reactions to Sulfonamide antibiotics should avoid using Cotrimoxazole.

Colistin

Colistin (Polymyxin E) is an antibiotic in the Polypeptide family. It is available topical formulations. Colistin is rarely used as a treatment for acne.

Colistin is not usually active against Gram-positive bacteria. Because the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is Gram-positive, Colistin is not expected to be a useful treatment for acne patients. Colistin is commonly used in veterinary medicine.

Cloxacillin

Cloxacillin (Cloxapen) is an antibiotic in the Penicillin family. It is used to treat several types of bacterial infections.

Cloxacillin is rarely used for the treatment of acne symptoms. However, laboratory research indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacteria is highly sensitive to Penicillin family antibiotics, such as Cloxacillin. There is little clinical research and few patient reports about the efficacy of Cloxacillin as an acne treatment.

Clindamycin

Clindamycinis an antibiotic in the Lincosamide Family. Clindamycin is closely related to antibiotics in the Macrolide family (eg. Erythromycin, Azithromycin). It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.

Clindamycin is frequently used as a treatment for acne. Topical Clindamycin is one of the most common antibiotic treatments for acne. Oral Clindamycin is also occasionally used as to treat acne. Many patients have reported that Clindamycin helped to improve their acne symptoms. Their is also a wealth of clinical research that demonstrates that Clindamycin can be an effective acne treatment.

Laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is usually sensitive to Clindamycin. However, Clindamycin-resistant P. acnes bacteria are becoming common in many regions of the world. Individuals with acne symptoms that are caused by Clindamycin-resistant bacteria are not likely to benefit from this medication. Bacteria that are resistant to Clindamycin are often also resistant to Macrolide antibiotics, such as Erythromycin.

Topical Clindamycin is often combined with complementary treatments, such as oral antibiotics, retinoids or light-based treatments.

Clarithromycin

Clarithromycin (Biomycin) is an antibiotic in the Macrolide family. Clarithromycin has a broad spectrum activity of activity against many types of bacteria, including those that cause strep throat, pneumonia, skin infections and stomach ulcers.

Clarithromycin is ocassionally used for the treatment of acne symptoms. Topical Clarithromycin is occasionally prescribed as an acne treatment. Oral Clarithromycin is rarely used to treat acne. Other antibiotics in the Macrolide family (eg. Azithromycin, Erythromycin) are more commonly used as acne treatments.

Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that Clarithromycin tends to be active against the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. However, P. acnes bacteria that are highly resistant to Clarithromycin (and other Macrolide family antibiotics) are becoming increasingly common in many regions. Clinical research and patient reports suggest that Clarithromycin (particularly topical Clarithromycin) can significantly improve acne symptoms for some patients. Topical Clarithromycin is often combined with a complementary treatments.

Ciprofloxacin

Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic in the Quinolone Family. Ciprofloxacin is a commonly used antibiotic that is used to treat a variety of infections, including bone, joint, respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections.

Ciprofloxacin is rarely used to treat acne. There is limited clinical evidence regarding the efficacy of Ciprofloxacin as a treatment for acne, although some individuals have reported that this medication helped improve their acne symptoms. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is generally sensitive to Quinolone family antibiotics, including Ciprofloxacin.

When used to treat acne, Ciprofloxacin is often combined with a complementary antibiotic. Ciprofloxacin is available as an oral or topical medication, although it is usually administered orally.

Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol (Clorin) is an antibiotic that is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. Chloramphenicol is used as a topical treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis (eye infections).

Chloramphenicol is generally used as a topical treatment for acne. Oral Chloramphenicol is rarely used to treat acne. Laboratory research suggests that the acne causing P. acnes bacteria is moderately susceptible to chloramphenicol. User reports suggest that topical chloramphenicol may be a useful acne treatment.

Cephalexin

Cephalexin (Keflex) is an antibiotic in the Cephalosporin Family. Cephalexin is a very common antibiotic that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.

Cephalexin is occasionally used to treat acne. There is limited clinical research into the efficacy of Cephalexin as an acne treatment. However, come patients have reported that Cephalexin improved their acne symptoms. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is generally sensitive to Cephalosporin fmaily antibiotics, including Cephalexin.

Ceftibuten

Ceftibuten (Cedax) is an antibiotic in the Cephalosporin Family. Ceftibuten is used to treat respiratory tract, urinary tract and other bacterial infections.

Ceftibuten is rarely used as an acne treatment. Laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing does indicate that the acne-causing P. acnes bacteria is generally sensitive to Cephalosporin family antibiotics, including Ceftibuten. There is little clinical research and few patient reports about Ceftibuten as a treatment for acne.

Cefradine

Cefradine is an antibiotic in the Cephalosporin Family. Cefradine is used to treat respiratory tract, urinary tract and skin infections. Note: Cefradine is not approved for human use in all countries.

Cefradine is rarely used as an acne treatment. Laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing does show that the acne-causing P. acnes bacteria is generally sensitive to Cephalosporin antibiotics, including Cefradine. However, there is minimal clinical research into the use of Cefradine as a treatment for acne.

Cefprozil

Cefprozil (Cefzil) is an antibiotic in the Cephalosporin Family. Cefprozil is used to treat bronchitis, ear infections and skin infections.

Cefprozil is rarely used as an acne treatment. Laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing does indicate that the acne causing P. acnes bacteria tends to be sensitive to Cephalosporin family antibiotics, including Cefprozil. There is little clinical research about the utility of Cefprozil for the treatment of acne.

Cefpodoxime

Cefpodoxime (Cefpo) is an antibiotic in the Cephalosporin Family. Cefpodoxime is used to treat a range of infections, including gonorrhoea, tonsillitis, pneumonia, and bronchitis.

Cefpodoxime is rarely used as an acne treatment. However, laboratory research indicates that the acne causing P. acnes bacteria tend to be susceptible to Cephalosporin family antibiotics, including Cefpodoxime. There is currently little clinical research and few patient reports on the efficacy of Cefpodoxime for the treatment of acne symptoms.

Cefixime

Cefixime (Suprax) is an antibiotic in the Cephalosporin family. Cefixime is commonly used to treat infections of the respiratory tract as well as the ear and urinary tract.

Cefixime is rarely used as an acne treatment. There is little clinical research about Cefixime as a treatment for acne and their are few patient reports. Laboratory research does indicate that the acne causing P. acnes bacteria is generally susceptible to Cephalosporin antibiotics, including Cefixime.

Cefdinir

Cefdinir (Omnicef) is an antibiotic in the Cephalosporin family. Cefdinir is often used to treat respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia, bronchitis and sinusitis.

Cefdinir is rarely used to treat acne, but antibiotic susceptibility research suggests that the acne causing P. acnes bacterium is likely to be susceptible to Cephalosporin family antibiotics, including Cefdinir. There is little clinical research on the utility of Cefdinir in the treatment of acne.

Cefadroxil

Cefadroxil is an antibiotic in the Cephalosporin Family. Cefadroxil is a broad spectrum antibiotic that can treat a variety of infections.

Cefadroxil is occasionally used as an acne treatment, but there is limited research into ability of Cefadroxil to improve acne symptoms. Laboratory testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is moderately susceptible to Cephalosporin antibiotics, including Cefadroxil. Oral antibiotic therapy with Cefadroxil may combined with complementary treatments, including topical retinoids and light-based treatments.

Cefaclor

Cefaclor is an antibiotic in the Cephalosporin Family. Cefaclor is a broad spectrum antibiotic that can treat a variety of infections.

Cefaclor is rarely used as an acne treatment and currently there is insufficient evidence to determine it’s efficacy as an acne treatment. However, laboratory testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is moderately susceptible to Cephalosporin antibiotics, including Cefaclor. Oral antibiotic therapy with Cefaclor may combined with complementary treatments, including topical retinoids and light-based treatments.

Bacitracin

Bacitracin is an antibiotic that is a mixture of closely related antibacterial molecules. Bacitracin can inhibit the growth of many kinds of bacteria, including S. aureus and P. acnes.

Bacitracin is applied topically for the treatment of acne. However, user and research reports suggest that Bacitracin is not an effective acne treatment, particularly for moderate to severe inflammatory acne. Triple antibiotic ointments (eg. Neosporin) usually include Bacitracin as an active ingredient.

Azithromycin

Azithromycin is an antibiotic in the Macrolide Family. Azithromycin is a very common antibiotic that is used to treat many different kinds of infections.

Azithromycin is rarely used to treat acne. However, there are some reports that Azithromycin helped improve acne symptoms. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be susceptible to antibiotics in the Macrolide family, including Azithromycin. However, Macrolide-resistant P. acnes bacteria are becoming common in many regions of the world.

Ampicillin

Ampicillin is an antibiotic in the Penicillin Family. Ampicillin is a very common antibiotic that is used to treat many different kinds of infection.

Ampicillin is rarely used to treat acne. There is limited evidence about the efficacy of Ampicillin for treating acne symptoms. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be highly sensitive to antibiotics in the Penicillin family, including Ampicillin.

Amoxicillin

Amoxicillin an antibiotic in the Penicillin family. Amoxicillin is a very common antibiotic that is used to treat many different kinds of infection.

Amoxicillin is occasionally used to treat acne. Many acne patients have reported that Amoxicillin helped improve their acne symptoms. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be highly sensitive to antibiotics in the Penicillin family, including Amoxicillin.

Augmentin (Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid)

Augmentin is a combination antibiotic that includes Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic in the Penicillin family. Clavulanic Acid prevents bacteria from inactivating Amoxicillin by blocking the activity of a bacterial enzyme called beta-lactamase.

Augmentin is not a common acne treatment, but there is some evidence to suggest that Augmentin can effective for individuals with acne. The acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be very sensitive to Penicillin family antibiotics. Augmentin is expected to be at least as effective than Amoxicillin alone, but Augmentin tends to be substantially more expensive than basic Amoxicillin.

Individuals who are allergic to Amoxicillin, Ampicillin or Penicillin have an increased risk of side effects from Augmentin treatment.