Ylang Ylang Essential Oil

Ylang Ylang Essential Oil is extracted from the flowers of the Cananga odorata tree. Ylang Ylang essential oil has a sweet floral aroma that has been used as a perfume since antiquity.

Ylang Ylang Essential Oil is often used in aromatherapy, and for making topical Naturopathic preparations. The usefulness of Ylang Ylang Essential Oil as an acne treatment is unclear. Some people have reported that topical treatments containing Ylang Ylang Essential Oil helped to improve their acne symptoms. However, these reports are anecdotal and further scientific research is required.

Ylang Ylang Essential Oil appears to have mild antibacterial properties, but it is far less antibacterial than other essential oils (eg. Thyme, Clove, etc). Ylang Ylang Essential Oil is expected to be mildly toxic to the acne-causing P. acnes bacteria. Ylang Ylang may also have a positive impact on skin tone, but there is currently no conclusive evidence about that relationship. The primary molecular compounds found in Ylang Ylang Essential Oil are Linalool, Germacrene D, Caryophyllene, p-Methylanisole, Geranyl Acetate and Benzyl Benzoate.

Vetiver Essential Oil

Vetiver Essential Oil is extracted from the roots of Vetiver or Khus Bunchgrass (Chrysopogon zizanioides). Vetiver grass is a fragrant grass that is widely used for culinary and Naturopathic purposes.

Vetiver Essential Oil is not as well-known or widely-used as many other essential oils, but it has some unique properties that make it a useful addition to Naturopathic treatments for certain skin conditions, such as acne. Although Vetiver Essential Oil is not currently a common ingredient in Naturopathic acne treatments, it does appear to be gaining popularity for this application.

Vetiver is a perennial bunchgrass that is native to the Indian subcontinent. It is a fragrant grass that is similar in appearance to Lemongrass and Citronella. Like these other fragrant grasses, the essential oil of Vetiver appears to have strong antibacterial properties. Laboratory testing indicates that Vetiver Essential Oil is highly toxic to the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium, as well as other gram-positive bacteria.

Vetiver Essential Oil is used in a range of aromatherapy, ayurvedic, cosmedic and naturopathic skin care products.  Vetiver Essential Oil has been claimed to have anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and sedative properties. Although there has been very little clinical research to verify these claims, the antibacterial activity of Vetiver Essential Oil suggests that this essential oil deserves to be further investigated as a topical treatment for acne. Vetiver Essential Oil contains many biologically active molecules, including significant concentrations of a unique molecule called Khusimol, which may be responsible for some of the reported effects of this essential oil.

References

Computer-aided identification of individual components of essential oils using carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. Tomi, et al. 1995.
Extraction of vetiver essential oil by ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide. Danh, et al. 2010.
Preliminary comparison of vetiver root essential oils from cleansed (bacteria- and fungus-free) versus non-cleansed (normal) vetiver plants. Adams, et al. 2004.
A Study on the Composition of Commercial Vetiveria zizanioides Oils from Different Geographical Origins. Champagnat, et al. 2006.
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of vetiver essential oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Filippi, et al. 2013.
The in vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Chemometric Modelling of 59 Commercial Essential Oils against Pathogens of Dermatological Relevance. Orchard, et al. 2017.
Antibacterial and antifungal activities of essential oils. Hammer, et al. 2011.

Thyme Essential Oil

Thyme Essential Oil can be derived from several species of Thyme (Thymus spp). Thyme has been used for culinary and medical purposes for thousands of years. Thyme Essential Oil is widely used in Naturopathic medicine as an antibacterial agent.

Thyme Essential Oil is commonly used in Naturopathic acne face washes. Several research studies have shown that Thyme Essential Oil is toxic to many different kinds of bacteria and fungi. The antibacterial properties of Thyme Essential Oil has may help reduce the growth of the Propionibacterium acnes bacterium, which is a causative agent of acne symptoms. Many people have reported that topical Thyme Essential Oil preparations helped to improve their acne symptoms.

Laboratory tests have shown that Thyme Essential Oil is one of the most effective essential oils at inhibiting bacterial growth. However, there is limited evidence that Thyme Essential Oil is an effective treatment for acne. In pure form, Thyme Essential Oil is a potent irritant of the skin and mucosal tissue. Thyme Essential Oil must be diluted below 5% prior to topical use. Thyme Essential Oil can be blended into an alcohol or carrier oil base to make customized solutions. Small amounts of Thyme Essential Oil may also be added to hot water and applied as a warm compress.

Extracts from plants in the genus Thymus have been used for centuries in medicinal preparations to treat and prevent infection. There are over 300 different species of Thyme and they are grown in most places around the world. Most Thyme Essential Oil is prepared from common Thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Historically, Thyme extracts were used as topical treatments for wounds and infections, and were also used as natural sanitizers. Thyme may also be prepared as a tea that is purported to have anti-inflammatory properties.

The composition of Thyme Essential Oil varies greatly depending on the species of Thymus and the environmental conditions where it was grown. The most abundant compound in Thyme Essential Oil is usually Thymol, which can account for up to 50% of the total volume. However, some samples of Thyme Essential Oil may have high levels of other compounds, such as Camphor and Caravacol. In addition, Thyme Essential Oil usually contains a large number of additional compounds in trace amounts. Many of these compounds are also found in other aromatic essential oils that have antibacterial properties, such as Tea Tree and Clove Essential Oil.

Tea Tree Essential Oil

Tea Tree Essential Oil is distilled from the bark of the Tea Tree (Melaleuca spp), which is native to Australia. There are several species of tea tree, but most essential oil is made from the bark of the Narrow-Leaved Paperbark Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia). Preparations of the bark of this tree have been an important part of Aboriginal medicine for thousands of years.

Tea Tree Essential Oil is used for a wide variety of ailments and it has been shown to have antimicrobial properties. Tea Tree Essential Oil is commonly used as a topical Naturopathic treatment for several kinds of skin infections, including acne. Concentrated Tea Tree Essential Oil is mildly toxic however, and care should be taken to avoid ingestion when applying to acne lesions.

Many people have reported that topical applications of Tea Tree Essential Oil helped to improve their acne symptoms. However, there are only a few real clinical studies about the efficacy of Tea Tree Essential Oil for the treatment of acne. One commonly-cited study found that a topical 5% Tea Tree Oil solution was approximately as effective as topical Benzoyl Peroxide. Basically, the Tea Tree Essential Oil was mildly helpful but did not significantly improve acne symptoms for most patients in the study. On the plus side, Topical Tea Tree Essential Oil had fewer side effects (eg. dry skin, itching, redness) than Benzoyl Peroxide.

The major limitation of Topical Tea Tree Essential Oil is the same as for many other topical acne treatments – the antibacterial compounds do not effectively penetrate the skin and reach the site of infection. This limitation means that Tea Tree Essential Oil (and most other topical treatments) are often ineffective treatments for moderate to severe acne symptoms (Acne Types: 3-4).

The successful use of Tea Tree extracts in indigenous medicine has inspired chemists, biologists and doctors to investigate the efficacy of Tea Tree Essential Oil for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. Several research studies have shown that Tea Tree Essential Oil is toxic to many types of bacteria, including the acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes bacterium. Tea tree oil is commonly used in soaps, lotions and wound dressings in both Naturopathic and modern medical applications.

Some people have reported allergic reactions to topical applications of Tea Tree Essential Oil. This is not unusual, many other essential oils can cause allergic reactions for some patients. Fortunately, a study of over 700 people showed that less than 1% of people had significant skin irritation following the use of a 5% Tea Tree Oil solution. Higher concentrations of Tea Tree Essential Oil are known to cause more frequent and severe side effects. Most naturopathic practitioners recommend diluting Tea Tree Essential Oil to 25% or less, before use.

The bark of the Tea Tree peels away in paper like sheets that can be used for bandages and sleeping mats. In addition, the bark is rich in volatile molecules, which are both pungent and antimicrobial. Numerous studies have that the compounds in Tea Tree Essential Oil are toxic to a wide range of bacteria and fungi. These antibacterial and antifungal compounds originally evolved to protect the Tea Tree from infection and disease. Tea Trees grow in moist and swampy regions in the northern part of Australia, an area where there are a lot of bacterial and fungal plant pathogens.

Standard Tea Tree Essential Oil is a blend of almost 100 different molecules, although most of these are only present in very small quantities. Most of the active compounds in Tea Tree Essential Oil are derivatives of terpene. The major components of tea tree oil are terpinen-4-ol, gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinene. Terpinen-4-ol is the most well studied of these molecules, and research has shown that it has potent antibacterial properties. Other secondary compounds in tea tree oil are suspected to act synergistically with terpinen-4-0l, to kill bacteria.

Not all Tea Tree Essential Oil is the same because of differences in the source and how it is processed. However, Tea Tree Essential Oil is one of the most popular essential oils and there are international standards for the types of mixtures that can be marketed and sold as Tea Tree Essential Oil.

Sandalwood Essential Oil

Sandalwood Essential Oil is derived from various species of the Sandalwood tree (Santalum spp) that are native to tropical regions. Most Sandalwood Essential Oil is prepared from the Indian Sandalwood Tree (Santalum album).

Sandalwood Essential Oil is occasionally used as a Naturopathic treatment for acne, where it is generally added to topical preparations, such as face masks. Sandalwood Aromatherapy may also be used in the treatment of acne itself and the psychological symptoms of acne.

Skin washes and masks that contain Sandalwood Essential Oil have been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. Sandalwood Essential Oil does not appear to have substantial antibacterial activity in many laboratory tests. There is minimal clinical research into the efficacy of Sandalwood Essential Oil for the treatment for acne.

Sandalwood Essential Oil is primarily composed of terpene molecule called Santalol. Santalol has two forms, alpha-Santalol and beta-Santalol, both of which are volatile compounds with a pleasant and unique aroma

Sandalwood is held in high regard by many cultures. High demand for Sandalwood and it’s relative rarity combine to make true Sandalwood Extracts quite expensive. With a distinctive and pleasant aroma, sandalwood oil has long been an important part of Ayurvedic medicine, with applications both for physical and mental disorders.

Sage Essential Oil

Sage Essential Oil is prepared from the leaves and flowers of many different species of sage (Salvia spp). Sage plants are common in many regions of the world. Two of the most popular types of Sage Essential Oil are extracted from Garden Sage (Salvia officinalis) and Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea). Sage and it’s essential oil are widely used in many cultures for culinary and medical purposes.

Sage Essential Oil is occasionally used in Naturopathic acne treatments, primarily in topical acne treatments. Clary Sage Essential Oil is more frequently used for acne treatments than other types of Sage Essential Oil. Many people have reported that topical Naturopathic treatments that contained Clary Sage Essential Oil helped to improve their acne symptoms. However, there is a very limited amount of clinical research about the efficacy of Sage Essential Oil for the treatment of acne.

Laboratory testing indicates that Sage Essential Oil is mildly toxic to many types of bacteria. However, the antibacterial activity of Sage Essential Oil is substantially less than that of many other common essential oils. In addition, Sage Essential Oil has been reported to be less effective against many types of gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes bacteria.

Essential Oils from Garden Sage and Clary Sage have important differences in their compositions. All Sage Essential Oil contains significant quantities of a molecule called Thujone. Thujone is a biologically active molecule that has several effects and can be toxic at high doses. Clary Sage Essential Oil contains large amounts of Linalool and Linalyl Acetate, while Garden Sage Essential Oil does not. Other compounds that can be found in Sage Essential Oil include Camphor, Geranyl Acetate and alpha-Pinene.

References

Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods a review. Burt. 2004.
Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidative Activity of Laurel, Sage, Rosemary, Oregano and Coriander Essential Oils. Baratta, et al. 1998.
Essential Oils from Dalmatian Sage (Salvia officinalis L.): Variations among Individuals, Plant Parts, Seasons, and Sites. Perry, et al. 1999.
Composition and Antifungal Activity on Soil-Borne Pathogens of the Essential Oil of Salvia sclarea from Greece. Pitarokili, et al. 2002.

Rosewood Essential Oil

Rosewood Essential Oil that is available in stores is usually extracted from the Brazilian Rosewood tree (Aniba rosaeodora). There are many other types of trees that are called Rosewood, including many species from the family Dalbergia. Rosewood Essential Oil is isolated by steam distillation of the wood and bark.

Rosewood Essential Oil is not commonly used in the Naturopathic treatment of acne. When Rosewood Essential Oil is used to treat acne, it is generally diluted and added to topical preparations. Rosewood Essential Oil is mildly toxic to many gram-positive bacteria, including acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes. There is very little clinical research and few patient reports about the efficacy of Rosewood Essential Oil for improving acne symptoms.

The primary molecular component of Rosewood Essential Oil is Linalool. Linalool is a volatile molecule that is very aromatic and accounts for up to 85% of the total oil content. Linalool can irritate the skin and cause allergic reactions in some individuals.

Rosewood Essential Oil is used extensively in perfumes and aromatherapies. Rosewood is more expensive than most other essential oils because of limited supply. The Brazilian Rosewood tree is endangered, but because the farmed supply of Brazilian Rosewood is not sufficient to meet demand, wild trees continue to be harvested.

Rosemary Essential Oil

Rosemary Essential Oil is extracted from the leaves of the Rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis). Rosemary is a woody, evergreen plant with fragrant needle-like leaves. Whole rosemary leaves and Rosemary Essential Oil are widely used for culinary and Naturopathic applications.

Because of its antibacterial properties, Rosemary Essential Oil is often incorporated into topical Naturopathic acne treatments. Laboratory testing indicates that Rosemary Essential Oil is toxic to many types of bacteria, including acne-causing P. acnes bacteria. Rosemary Essential Oil has been shown to more effective at killing gram-positive bacteria (eg. P. acnes) than many other popular essential oils.

Rosemary Essential Oil is also purported to have anti-inflammatory properties, to reduce oily skin and to improve skin tone.  All of these effects would be helpful to most acne sufferers, but unfortunately there is little clinical research to support these specific claims.

Rosemary Essential Oil contains a number of phytochemicals that are known to have biological activity. Rosemary Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of 1,8-cineole (Eucalyptol), alpha-Pinene, beta-Pinene, Camphor, Camphene and Borneol. Several of these compounds have been shown to have antibacterial properties that can help reduce the growth of acne-causing bacteria. For some users, concentrated Rosemary Essential Oil can be irritating to the skin. Therefore, diluted Rosemary Essential Oil is generally used for Naturopathic skin care applications.

References

Investigation of antibacterial activity of rosemary essential oil against Propionibacterium acnes with atomic force microscopy. Fu, et al. 2007.
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Rosemary. Jiang, et al. 2011.
Chemical composition, plant genetic differences, antimicrobial and antifungal activity investigation of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Angioni, et al. 2004.
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil obtained via supercritical fluid extraction. Santoyo, et al. 2005.

Rose Flower Essential Oil

Rose Flower Essential Oil is made from the flower petals of many species of rose (Rosa spp.). There are two main types of Rose Essential Oil: Rose otto (aka attar of rose) and rose absolute oil. Rose otto is harvested via steam distillation and Rose absolute oil is harvested via solvent extraction.

Rose Flower Essential Oil is occasionally used as a Naturopathic treatment for acne. Small amounts of Rose Flower Essential Oil are generally added to a blend of other essential oils, plant extracts or clay and used in Naturopathic face masks and creams. Rose Flower Essential Oil is also used extensively in Aromatherapy.

Rose Flower Essential Oil is purported to have anti-inflammatory effects which can help improve acne symptoms. However, there is little clinical research and few patient reports about the efficacy of Rose Flower Essential Oil as a treatment for acne. Laboratory testing indicates that Rose Flower Essential Oil has weak antibacterial activity. Three of the main molecular components of Rose Flower Essential Oil are Citronellol, Geraniol and Nonadecane.

Pure Rose Flower Essential Oil is relatively expensive due to the large amount of rose flowers needed to produce a small amount of essential oil. Because of the expense of pure Rose Flower Essential Oil, many products that claim to be Rose Flower Essential Oil are actually blends of other essential oils that may contain little or no actual Rose Flower Essential Oil.

Patchouli Essential Oil

Patchouli Essential Oil is extracted from the leaves of several species of plants in the genus Pogostemon. Patchouli Essential Oil is widely used in Aromatherapy and perfumes.

Patchouli Essential Oil is occasionally used in Naturopathic treatments for skin diseases, such as acne. When used in Naturopathic acne treatments, Patchouli Oil is often blended with other essential oils and active ingredients, and then applied topically.

Patchouli Essential Oil is purported to have antibacterial, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties that can be helpful for individuals with skin infections, such as acne. It is also been claimed that Patchouli Essential Oil can improve skin tone and is a useful treatment for fine lines and uneven skin tone. However, few of these claims have been investigated in scientific studies. Patchouli Essential Oil is also used as a natural insect repellent.

Laboratory testing indicates that Patchouli Essential Oil has moderate antibacterial activity towards gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. However, many other essential oils have been shown to have stronger antibacterial properties than Patchouli Essential Oil.

The composition of Patchouli Essential Oil is variable and depends on the specific source material and how it was processed. Several species of Pogostemon are used to produce Patchouli Essential Oil, including Pogostemon cablin, P. commosum, P. heyneasus, P. hortensis,  and P. plectranthoides. Patchouli Essential Oil contains many biologically-active molecules, including abundant concentrations of alpha-Guaiene, delta-Guaiene, beta-Caryophyllene and alpha-Patchoulene.

References

Comparison of extraction of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) essential oil with supercritical CO2 and by steam distillation. Donelian, et al. 1999.
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. Hammer, et al. 1999.
Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ten essential oils in vitro. Pattnaik, et al. 1995.
The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model. Edwards-Jones, et al. 2004.
Patchouli alcohol, an essential oil of Pogostemon cablin, exhibits anti-tumorigenic activity in human colorectal cancer cells. Jeong, et al. 2013.
Composition and comparison of essential oils of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.(Patchouli) and Pogostemon travancoricus Bedd. var. travancoricus. Sundaresan, et al. 2009.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless. 2013.
The in vitro antimicrobial activity and chemometric modelling of 59 commercial essential oils against pathogens of dermatological relevance. Orchard, et al. 2017.
Efficiency of Vanilla, Patchouli and Ylang Ylang Essential Oils Stabilized by Iron Oxide C14 Nanostructures against Bacterial Adherence and Biofilms Formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strains. Bilcu, et al. 2014.

Oregano Essential Oil

Oregano Essential Oil is derived from the common Oregano herb (Origanum vulgare). Oregano is a perennial herb that is related to other common herbs, including Mint and Thyme.

Oregano Essential Oil is a popular component of many Naturopathic treatments for skin problems. Oregano Essential Oil is a common addition to topical Naturopathic acne treatments.

Several research studies have shown that Oregano Essential Oil has strong antibacterial properties, particularly against gram-positive bacteria (eg. Propionibacterium acnes). In fact, Oregano may be one of the essential oils that is most toxic to the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. In spite of its known antibacterial activity, there has been minimal clinical research into the efficacy of Oregano Essential Oil as a topical treatment for acne. However, many individuals have reported that Oregano Essential Oil helped to improve their acne symptoms.

Oregano Essential Oil contains many molecules which are known to have antimicrobial properties and other biological activity. Oregano Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of Thymol, Carvacrol, p-Cymene and y-Terpinene. Thymol and Carvacrol in particular are known to be toxic to many types of bacteria.

References

In vitro bioactivities of essential oils used for acne control. Lertsatitthanakorn, et al. 2006.
Composition of oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare) as affected by drying method. Figiel, et al. 2010.
A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. Lambert, et al. 2001.
Susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococci to oregano essential oil, carvacrol and thymol. Nostro, et al. 2004.
Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of laurel, sage, rosemary, oregano and coriander essential oils. Baratta, et al. 1998.
Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Kalemba, et al. 2003.

Neroli Essential Oil

Neroli Essential Oil is extracted from the flowers of the Bitter Orange tree (Citrus aurantium). 

Neroli Essential Oil is coveted for its alluring fragrance, and is widely used in Perfumery, Aromatherapy and as a flavoring additive. Bitter Orange Trees are native to Africa and Asia, but are now cultivated in many regions around the world.

Neroli Essential Oil is occasionally for the Naturopathic treatment of acne. As an acne treatment, Neroli Essential Oil is typically added to face wash blends and clarifying masks. Neroli Essential Oil has been reported to have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. It is also believed to have a lower risk of causing skin irritation than many other essential oils. Many Naturopaths and their patients have reported that topical preparations containing Neroli Essential Oil helped to improve their acne symptoms. However, there does not appear to be any publicly-available clinical research studies that support these claims.

Neroli Essential Oil contains a range of chemical compounds, many of which are known to have biological activity. Neroli Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of Linalool, Linalyl Acetate, Limonene, Farnesol, alpha-Terpineol and Nerolidol. Laboratory testing indicates that Neroli Essential Oil is only mildly toxic to gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. Many other essential oils are known to have significantly stronger antibacterial properties.

References

Bioactivity of selected plant essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes. Lis‐Balchin, et al. 1997.
Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Citrus aurantium l. flowers essential oil (Neroli oil). Ammar, et al. 2012.
Quantification and determination of chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from natural orange blossom water (Citrus aurantium L. ssp. aurantium). Jeannot, et al. 2005.
Chemical composition of essential oils from flowers, leaves and peel of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara from Tunisia. Boussaada, et al. 2006.
Volatile constituents and antioxidant activity of peel, flowers and leaf oils of Citrus aurantium L. growing in Greece. Sarrou, et al. 2013.
Screening for inhibitory activity of essential oils on selected bacteria, fungi and viruses. Chao, et al. 2000.
The in vitro antimicrobial activity and chemometric modelling of 59 commercial essential oils against pathogens of dermatological relevance. Orchard, et al. 2016.

Myrrh Essential Oil

Myrrh Essential Oil is extracted from the resin species of Myrrh trees (Commiphora Spp). Myrrh resin is used extensively in Traditional, Naturopathic and Ayurvedic Medicine, as well as Aromatherapy.

In the regions where it grows, the humans have used Myrrh throughout recorded history. For example, Myrrh was one of the gifts brought by the Magi to celebrate the birth of Jesus.

As a treatment for acne, Myrrh is often combined with other ingredients in topical Naturopathic formulations. Many Naturopathic practitioners and their patients believe that Myrrh Essential Oil can help relieve symptoms of acne. Myrrh is purported to have antiseptic, astringent and anti-inflammatory properties.

Some research studies have found that Myrrh Essential Oil is toxic to cancer cells that are grown in the laboratory. However, there is very little clinical research about the efficacy of Myrrh Essential Oil as a treatment for acne. Laboratory testing indicates that Myrrh Essential Oil is weakly toxic to gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium.

Myrrh Essential Oil can be produced from the resin of several species of Myrrh, the most common of which is Commiphora myrrha (molmol). Myrrh plants are native to regions of East Africa and the Middle East. Myrrh is in the same family as Frankincense (Burseraceae). Myrrh Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of biologically-active molecules, including Furanodiene, Furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, Lindestrene and beta-Elemene.

References

Composition and potential anticancer activities of essential oils obtained from myrrh and frankincense. Chen, et al. 2013.
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. Hammer, et al. 1999.
Essential oils of some Boswellia spp., Myrrh and Opopanax. Baser, et al. 2003.
Components, therapeutic value and uses of myrrh. Ashry, et al. 2003.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless. 2013
The in vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Chemometric Modelling of 59 Commercial Essential Oils against Pathogens of Dermatological Relevance. Orchard. 2017

Mint Essential Oil

Mint Essential Oil is derived from several species of the mint plant (Mentha spp), which can be found worldwide. The mint plant has been used by humans for thousands of years and has a wide variety of uses, such as cooking, skin care, toothpaste, aromatherapy and more.

Mint Essential Oil has been shown to have some antimicrobial properties and is moderately toxic to acne-causing bacteria, such as Propionibacterium acnes. Many people have reported that topical application of solutions that contain Mint Essential Oil have helped to improve their acne symptoms. While there is little clinical research into the efficacy of Mint Essential Oil as a treatment for acne, it is possible that some users may find it to be helpful addition to their acne treatment regimen.

The two most common types of Mint Essential Oil are Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and Spearmint (Mentha spicata). These essential oils contain different mixtures of molecules. The dominant compounds in Peppermint Essential oil tend to be Menthol and Menthone, while the Spearmint Essential Oil contains abundant Carvone and Limonene.

Lemongrass Essential Oil

Lemongrass is a group of grasses (Cymbopogon spp.) that are native to Asia, Africa and Australia. Lemongrass has multiple uses that range from cooking to insect repellent to skin care. Lemongrass Essential Oil and Citronella Essential Oil are produced from species of Lemongrass and can be used interchangeably.

Lemongrass Essential Oil is commonly used in topical preparations for the Naturopathic treatment of skin infections, including acne. It contains several molecules that are toxic the the acne-causing bacterium, Propionibacterium acnes. Laboratory testing indicates that Lemongrass Essential Oil is among the most effective essential oils for inhibiting the growth of P. acnes bacteria.

Lemongrass Essential Oil contains an abundance of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients. The primary components of Lemongrass Essential Oil are Geranial and Neral, which are subtypes (enantiomers) of a molecule called Citral.

Lavender Essential Oil

Lavender Essential Oil is extracted from the several species of the Lavender plant (Lavandula sp). Lavender essential oil is purported to have both antibacterial and antiseptic properties.

Lavender Essential Oil is used in a variety of topical Naturopathic preparations, including many acne treatments. Many people report that products with Lavender essential oil helped to improve their acne symptoms. However, there is little direct scientific research on the utility of Lavender as an acne treatment. Lavender is also used extensively for aromatherapy, and it is used as a scent in many household products.

Lavender Essential Oil appears to be moderately toxic to the acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes bacterium. The primary components of Lavender Essential Oil are 1 5-dimethyl-1-vinyl-4-hexenyl butyrate (Linalyl butanoate), 1,3,7-Octatriene, 3,7-dimethyl- (Ocimene), Eucalyptol, Caryophyllene and Camphor.

Kaffir Lime Essential Oil

Kaffir Lime Essential Oil is a type of essential oil that is derived from the leaves and fruit rinds of the Kaffir Lime plant (Citrus hystrix).

Kaffir Lime Essential Oil is occasionally used for the Naturopathic treatment of acne. Generally, Kaffir Lime Essential Oil is added to topical preparations, such as face washes and masks. However, there is little clinical research and few patient reports about the usefulness of Kaffir Lime Essential Oil when used as acne treatment.

Kaffir Limes are native to mountainous and tropical areas of southeast Asia. Lime Leaf Essential Oil and whole Kaffir Lime leaves and peels are used extensively for culinary and Naturopathic applications.

Laboratory testing indicates that Kaffir Lime Essential Oil. is moderately toxic to gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes. However, many other kinds of essential oils have been shown to have substantially greater antibacterial activity than Kaffir Lime Essential Oil.

Kaffir Lime Essential Oil rich in antioxidants, terpenes and other nutrients. Major components of this essential oil are beta-pinene, sabinene and citronellal. Some research studies have reported that these molecules have antibacterial properties that might help control the growth of acne-causing P. acnes bacteria.

Juniper Berry Essential Oil

Juniper Berry Essential Oil is extracted from the fruits of many species of Juniper tree (Juniperus spp).

There are more than 50 species of juniper and they can be found in many regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Junipers are an important part of traditional Naturopathic medicine for many indigenous cultures.

Juniper Essential Oil is a popular ingredient in topical Naturopathic acne treatments. There is very little clinical research about the efficacy of Juniper Berry Essential Oil as a treatment for acne. However, many users have reported that topical treatments that contain Juniper Berry Essential Oil helped to improve their acne symptoms.

Laboratory testing indicates that Juniper Berry Essential Oil is moderately toxic to gram-positive bacteria, including the acne-causing P. acnes bacteria. More research is needed to determine whether Juniper Berry Essential Oil should be more widely used as an acne treatment.

Essential Oil can be made from both the needles and the berries of Juniper trees, but Juniper Berry Essential Oil is the more common source. Juniper Berry Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of alpha-Pinene, beta-Pinene, Myrcene, Humulene and Terpinen-4-ol. Several of these molecules are known to have biological activity and/or antibacterial properties.

References

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of juniper berry oil and its selected components. Filipowicz, et al. 2003.
Analysis of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina needle, berry, wood and root oils by combination of GC, GC/MS and 13C-NMR. Gonny, et al. 2005.
Comparative analysis of the composition of essential oils and supercritical carbon dioxide extracts from the berries and needles of Estonian juniper (Juniperus communis L.). Orav, et al. 2010.
Chemical composition, cytotoxic activity and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of leaves and berries of Juniperus phoenicea L. grown in Egypt. El-Sawi, et al. 2007.
Solid lipid microparticles (SLM) containing juniper oil as anti-acne topical carriers: preliminary studies. Gavini, et al. 2005.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless. 2013.

Geranium Essential Oil

Geraniums (Pelargonium) are a diverse group of plants that contains over 100 species. Geranium Essential Oil is most commonly extracted from the leaves of the Rose Scented Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens ). This species of geranium is native to the Southern Africa.

Geranium Essential Oil is widely used for Naturopathic and Aromatherapy applications. It is occasionally included in topical Naturopathic treatments for acne.

Geranium Essential Oil is purported to have many properties that make it a valuable addition to Naturopathic skin care products. It has been claimed that Geranium Essential Oil has antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, very little clinical research has been conducted to investigate these claims. Laboratory testing indicates that Geranium Essential Oil is toxic to the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium.

Geranium Essential Oil is a rich source of the molecule Citronellol, which is known to have potent antibacterial properties. Geranium Essential Oil also contains significant concentrations of Linalool, Geraniol and Isomenthone.

References

Variation in essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) distilled by different distillation techniques. Babu, et al. 2005.
Biomass yield, essential oil yield and essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species) as influenced by row spacings and intercropping with cornmint (Mentha arensis L.f. piperascens Malinv. ex Holmes). Rao. 2002.
Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Kalemba, et al. 2003.
Topical herbal therapies an alternative and complementary choice to combat acne. Kapoor, et al. 2011.
Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils from Five Selected Herbs. Tsai, et al. 2011.

Frankincense Essential Oil

Frankincense Essential Oil is extracted from the resin of various species of Frankincense tree (Boswellia spp). There are many species of Frankincense tree, most of which are native to Eastern Africa and the Middle East.

Ancient texts and oral histories indicate that Frankincense resin has been used by the people of the region for thousands of years. For example, Frankincense was one of three gifts that the Magi brought to celebrate the birth of Jesus.

Frankincense is widely used in Ayurvedic, Naturopathic and many forms of Traditional Medicine. Pure frankincense resin is consumed orally to treat a range of digestive tract problems. Frankincense is used extensively in Aromatherapy. Several research studies have reported that Frankincense is toxic to cancer cells, but these studies were all done in test tubes and it is unclear whether Frankincense would be a useful cancer treatment in humans or animals.

For Naturopathic acne treatments, Frankincense Essential Oil is generally used as a topical treatment. It can be added to topical formulations where it is purported to help ameliorate acne symptoms by reducing inflammation, suppressing bacterial growth and accelerating healing. Some Naturopathic practitioners may also prescribe Frankincense resin as an oral treatment for acne, although this is uncommon.

Despite the fact that many Naturopaths and their patients report improvements in their acne symptoms with the use of Frankincense Essential Oil, there is very little clinical research on this topic. There do not appear to be any controlled studies about the efficacy of Frankincense for the treatment of acne. Laboratory testing indicates that Frankincense is not strongly toxic to gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium.

Because Frankincense Essential Oil can be produced from the resin of several species of Frankincense (Boswellia) tree, there is considerable variation in the composition of Frankincense Essential Oil. Frankincense is most commonly obtained from the resin of the following Frankincense species: Boswellia carteriiBoswellia frereana, Boswellia papyrifera, Boswellia sacra and Boswellia serrata. Frankincense Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of many biologically-active molecules, including alpha-Pinene, Limonene, p-Cymene and B-Caryophyllene.

Populations of native Frankincense trees are declining in many regions, largely due to unsustainable harvesting of Frankincense resin. A substantial proportion of Frankincense trees grow in countries that have high levels of poverty and weak environmental protections. Resin extraction can slow the growth of Frankincense trees, reduce their seed production or even kill them outright. Consumers can help protect Frankincense populations by purchasing resin and oils that are sustainably harvested.

References

Composition and potential anticancer activities of essential oils obtained from myrrh and frankincense. Chen, et al. 2013.
Volatile composition and antimicrobial activity of twenty commercial frankincense essential oil samples. Van Vuuren, et al. 2010.
Chemistry and immunomodulatory activity of frankincense oil. Mikhaeil, et al. 2003.
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of some oleogum resin essential oils from Boswellia spp.(Burseraceae). Camarda, et al. 2007.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless. 2013.

Eucalyptus Essential Oil

Eucalyptus Essential Oil is derived from the eucalyptus plant (Eucalyptus spp.) and has been used by aboriginal people in Australia for thousands of years.

Eucalyptus Essential Oil is occasionally used in Naturopathic acne treatments. It is generally added as an antibacterial agent to Naturopathic acne face cleansers.

Eucalyptus Essential Oil has antiseptic and antibacterial properties. Eucalyptol (a primary component of Eucalyptus Essential Oil) is an active ingredient in some cough drops and mouth washes. Surgeons even used it in the 1800s to prevent post-surgery infections.

Some people have reported that topical application of Eucalyptus Essential Oil helped to improve their acne symptoms.Laboratory testing has also shown that Eucalyptus Essential Oil is moderately toxic to the acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes bacterium. The primary molecular compounds found in Eucalyptus Essential Oil are 1,8-Cineol (aka Eucalyptol) and alpha-Pinene. Both of these compounds are known to have biological activity.

Fun fact: Koala bears eat Eucalyptus Leaves.

Cypress Essential Oil

Cypress Essential Oil is extracted from the needles and branches of the Cypress tree, usually the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens).

Cypress Essential Oil is widely used in the traditional medicine of the people who live in regions where Cypress trees are found. Cypress Essential Oil is occasionally used for the Naturopathic treatment of acne. As an acne treatment, Cypress Essential Oil is generally added to topically-applied formulations.

There is little clinical research about Cypress Essential Oil as a treatment for acne. However, many Naturopathic practitioners and their patients report that Cypress Essential Oil helped control their acne symptoms. Cypress Essential Oil is purported to have antimicrobial properties, to improve circulation, to improve digestion and to reduce inflammation. Cypress Essential Oil is included in many Naturopathic skin care products that are intended to brighten the skin and improve overall complexion.

Laboratory testing indicates that Cypress Essential Oil has some antibacterial properties, but less than many other essential oils. Cypress Essential Oil does not appear to be particularly toxic to gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. Cypress Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of alpha-Pinene, carene, alpha-terpinolene and limonene.

References

Chemical composition of cypress essential oils: volatile constituents of leaf oils from seven cultivated Cupressus species. Pierre-Leandri, et al. 2003.
Chemical composition of Algerian cypress essential oil. Chanegriha, et al. 1993.
GC and GC/MS leaf oil analysis of four Algerian cypress species. Chanegriha, et al. 1997.
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Cupressus arizonica Greene. Chraif, et al. 2007.
Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.). Selim, et al. 2014.
Biological effects of essential oils: a review. Bakkali, et al. 2008.
Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees. Hong, et al. 2004.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless. 2013.

Coriander Essential Oil

Coriander Essential Oil is isolated from the seeds of the Cilantro plant (Coriandrum sativum).

Coriander essential oil contains high levels of vitamin D and other nutrients that are beneficial for the skin. Coriander Essential Oil is not frequently used in Naturopathic acne treatments.

There is some preliminary research which indicates that the Coriander Essential Oil may have antibacterial effects that inhibit the growth of the acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes bacterium. However, it is unclear how effective Coriander Essential Oil is for the treatment of acne. The primary molecular components of Coriander Essential Oil are Linalool, Terpinene, alpha-Pinene and Camphor.

Clove Essential Oil

Clove Essential Oil is derived from the clove plant (Syzygium aromaticum), which is native to Indonesia.

Clove Essential Oil has antiseptic and analgesic properties, and it is extensively used in both western and traditional medicine. Before the advent of modern numbing agents, concentrated Clove Essential Oil was commonly used in dentistry as a local anesthetic and disinfectant.

Clove Essential Oil is used as extensively as a Naturopathic treatment for respiratory diseases and skin diseases, such as acne. Many people have reported that the pain and infection relieving properties of Clove Essential oil helped to improve their acne symptoms. Clove Essential is often diluted and blended with other essential oils and plant extracts for use as a topical acne treatment.

The primary component of Clove Essential Oil is eugenol. Laboratory research has shown that eugenol is highly toxic to Propionibacterium acnes, the bacteria commonly involved in acne infections. However, eugenol and concentrated Clove Essential Oil are known skin irritants. Because of this, clove oil is almost always diluted prior to use.

References

The antibacterial activity of clove essential oil against Propionibacterium acnes and its mechanism of action. Fu, et al. 2009.
Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Kalemba, et al. 2003.
Biological effects of essential oils: A review. Bakkali, et al. 2008.
Antifungal activities of the essential oils in Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. Et Perry and Leptospermum petersonii Bailey and their constituents against various dermatophytes. Park, et al. 2007.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless. 2013.
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against five strains of Propionibacterium acnes. Luangnarumitchai, et al. 2007.
In vitro bioactivities of clove buds oil (Eugenia caryophyllata) and its effect on dermal fibroblast. Khunkitti, et al. 2012.
Global yields, chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L.) extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction. Leal, et al. 2006.

Citrus Essential Oil

Citrus Essential Oils are extracted from the rinds of lemon, lime, orange and other citrus fruits (Citrus spp). Citrus Essential Oils are common ingredients in a wide range of products, including cosmetics and cleaning products.

Citrus Essential Oils are not commonly used on their own as an acne treatment. However, they are used as an additive in many OTC and Naturopathic acne treatment products. In Naturopathic Medicine, Citrus Essential Oil is often blended with other essential oils for topical use, or is used as an aromatherapy.

Several research studies have demonstrated that Citrus Essential Oils are toxic to many types of bacteria, including acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes bacteria. Citrus Essential Oil is also toxic to many types of fungi and other microbes. Citrus Essential Oil may have anti-inflammatory and immune-boosting properties, but these claims have not been rigorously proven. Citrus Essential Oil also contains many anti-oxidant molecules.

Citrus Essential Oils readily dissolve sebum, and may be helpful for patients with oily skin. However, the removal of natural sebum oils may also be irritating to the skin. Citrus Essential Oils are known skin irritants, particularly at higher concentrations.

Citrus Essential Oil can be produced from the left-over byproducts of juice processing, and are therefore among the most abundant and inexpensive of the essential oils. Citrus Essential Oils are excellent solvents that can be used to dissolve a wide range of substances. Because of their dissolving power, Citrus Essential Oils have been widely used as topical cleansers and disinfectants.

There are many types of citrus fruit and the chemical composition of their essential oils are each a little different. For most Citrus Essential Oils, the primary component is limonene. Limonene is a colorless liquid with a pungent citrus aroma. Limonene is a type of hydrocarbon called a terpene. Pure limonene is combustible and has been investigated for use as a renewable biofuel. Orange essential oils tend to contain higher concentrations of limonene then lemon and lime oils. Citrus Essential Oils also contain low concentrations of pinene, sabinene, myrcene, terpinene and geranial.

References

Biological activities of Korean Citrus obovoides and Citrus natsudaidai essential oils against acne-inducing bacteria. Kim, et al. 2008.
Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils extracted from Korean endemic citrus species. Baik, et al. 2008.
Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells. Zu, et al. 2010.
In vitro bioactivities of essential oils used for acne control. Lertsatitthanakorn, et al. 2006.
Antimicrobial activity of Turkish Citrus peel oils. Kirbalar, et al. 2009.
Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Kalemba, et al. 2003.
Limonene suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Yoon, et al. 2010.
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Citrus limettioides Tanaka. Vasudeva, et al. 2012.
Study antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel extract. Dhanavade, et al. 2011.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless. 2013.
Current and potential use of citrus essential oils. Palazzolo, et al. 2013.
Chemical composition of commercial citrus fruit essential oils and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity acting alone or in combined processes. Espina, et al. 2011.
Comprehensive two-dimensional GC for the analysis of citrus essential oils. Mondello, et al. 2005.

Citronella Essential Oil

Citronella Essential Oil is an extract from certain species of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon spp.). 

Citronella Essential Oil is also occasionally used as a topical Naturopathic treatment for some types of skin infections, including acne. Citronella Essential Oil is often diluted and added to face washes and scrubs. Several research studies have reported that Citronella is moderately toxic to acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes bacteria.

The primary components of Citronella Essential Oil are Geraniol and Citral. Both of these molecules have been reported to have some antibacterial properties against the P. acnes bacteria.

Citronella Essential Oil is commonly used in aromatherapy and as a natural mosquito repellant. There are two different kinds of Citronella Essential Oil that are widely available – Java and Ceylon. Citronella Essential Oil and Lemongrass Essential Oil are both produced from species of Lemongrass and can be used interchangeably.

References

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass). Nakahara, et al. 2013.
The effect of lemongrass oil and its major components on clinical isolate mastitis pathogens and their mechanisms of action on Staphylococcus aureus DMST 4745. Aiemsaard, et al. 2011.
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against five strains of Propionibacterium acnes. Luangnarumitchai, et al. 2007.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless, et al. 2013.
Antibacterial activity of citronella oil solid lipid particles in oleogel against Propionibacterium acnes and its chemical stability. Lertsatitthanakorn, et al. 2008.
Effect of citronella oil on time kill profile, leakage and morphological changes of Propionibacterium acnes. Lertsatitthanakorn, et al. 2010.
In vitro antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of herbs against Propionibacterium acnes. Tsai, et al. 2010.

Cinnamon Essential Oil

Cinnamon is a spice derived from the bark of the Cinnamon tree (Cinnamomum spp.).

Cinnamon is thought to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. It is widely used in food preparation.

Cinnamon Essential Oil is occasionally used as a Naturopathic treatment for a range of health ailments. Cinnamon Essential Oil is rarely used in the treatment of acne.

Cinnamaldehyde is the main component of Cinnamon Essential Oil and this molecule may be responsible for some of cinnamon’s antibacterial properties. In addition to cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamon Essential Oil also contains significant amounts of Coumarin and 3-Methoxy-1,2-propanediol.

Some individuals with acne have reported that Cinnamon Essential Oil and/or topical treatments that contain ground Cinnamon powder helped to reduce their acne symptoms. Laboratory testing suggests that Cinnamon Essential Oil is moderately toxic to the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium.

Topical facial creams that contain a mixture of ground cinnamon and honey are a popular Naturopathic treatment for acne.

Chamomile Essential Oil

Chamomile Essential Oil is extracted from several species of Chamomile plant. German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) are the two species that are most commonly used to produce essential oil.

Chamomile Essential Oil is used in many Naturopathic skin care remedie. However, the efficacy of Chamomile essential oil as an acne treatment remains uncertain.

Chamomile essential oil contains a number of molecules with antibacterial activity. These molecules may help reduce the growth of acne-causing bacteria, including P. acnes bacteria. The primary family of molecular compounds found Chamomile Essential Oil are called Bisabolols.

In addition to topical preparations, Chamomile tea is very popular and is reported to have anti-anxiety and sleep-inducing properties. Chamomile is also routinely used in Aromatherapy.

Cedarwood Essential Oil

Cedarwood Essential Oil is extracted from the needles and wood of several species of Juniper (Juniperus spp), Cypress (Cupressus spp) and Cedar (Cedrus spp). 

Because Cedarwood Essential Oil is produced from many different sources, the composition and properties of this essential oil are quite variable. Cedarwood Essential Oil is widely used in Aromotherapy and Naturopathic medicine. Cedarwood Essential Oil is rarely used in Naturopathic treatments for acne.

When used for the treatment of acne, Cedarwood Essential Oil is often blended into topical Naturopathic formulations that contain additional essential oils and other active ingredients. Cedarwood Essential Oil is purported to help improve skin tone. It has been claimed that Cedarwood Essential Oil has antibacterial, anti-fungal, astringent, insect repellent and sedative properties.

Cedarwood Essential Oil has also been claimed to improve metabolic and digestive function. However, very few of these claims have been scientifically investigated, so it is difficult to know whether they are true or not. Cedar wood itself is well known to be resistant to microbes and insects, and cedar is widely used to create storage chests for clothing, and other items.

Cedarwood Essential Oil is most commonly produced from about 4 species of conifer: Blue Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica), Himalayan Cedar (Cedrus deodora), Mexican Juniper (Juniperus mexicana) and Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana). The chemical composition of Cedarwood Essential Oil depends on the source material. Major components of Cedarwood Essential Oil include alpha-Cedrene and Cedrol.

Laboratory testing indicates that Cedarwood Essential Oil tends to be weakly toxic to gram positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium.

References

Computer-aided identification of individual components of essential oils using carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. Tomi, et al. 1995.
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. Hammer, et al. 1999.
Cedar wood oil — Analyses and properties. Adams, et al. 1991.
In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils. Prabuseenivasan, et al. 2006.
Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cedarwood oil: a study of extraction parameters and oil characteristics. Eller, et al. 2007.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless. 2013.

Bergamot Essential Oil

Bergamot Essential Oil is harvested from the rinds of the Bergamot Orange fruit (Citrus bergamia).

Bergamot is widely used for cooking, perfume making and Naturopathic skin treatments. Bergamot Essential Oil is occasionally included in topical Naturopathic acne treatments.

Bergamot Essential Oil is purported to help improve acne symptoms and skin tone when used topically. Unfortunately, there is virtually no clinical research into the use of Bergamot Essential Oil as an acne treatment. Laboratory testing indicates that Bergamot Essential Oil is mildly toxic to some types of gram-positive bacteria, such as the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. However, these laboratory test results found that many other types of essential oil (eg. Rosemary) had significantly more antibacterial activity than Bergamot Essential Oil.

Bergamot Essential Oil is a complex mixture of many types of molecules. Bergamot Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of Limonene, Linalyl Acetate and Linalool. These, and other compounds found in Bergamot Essential Oil are known to have biological activity. Bergamot Essential Oil can also contains a molecules (eg. Psoralen) that act as photosensitizers. Topical use of Bergamot Essential Oil can increase the sensitivity of the skin to sunlight and UV radiation.

References

The effect of lemon, orange and bergamot essential oils and their components on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in food systems. Fisher, et al. 2006.
Effects of Rootstock on the Composition of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) Essential Oil. Verzera, et al. 2003.
Activities of Ten Essential Oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 Cancer Cells. Zu, et al. 2010.
Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a byproduct of the essential oil industry. Mandalari, et al. 2007.
In vitro antimicrobial effects and mechanism of action of selected plant essential oil combinations against four food-related microorganisms. Lv, et al, 2011.

Basil Essential Oil

Basil Essential Oil is extracted from the leaves of several species of Basil (Ocimum spp).

Basil is widely used for culinary purposes and many strains of this plant are cultivated around the world. Basil Essential Oil is also a popular component of many Naturopathic skin care treatments. Basil Essential Oil is occasionally included in topical Naturopathic acne treatments.

Basil has been cultivated for thousands of years and plays an important role in the traditional cuisine of many cultures. Basil Essential Oil has been shown to have a wide range of antimicrobial properties. Laboratory testing indicates that Basil Essential Oil is moderately toxic to many gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. Basil Essential Oil and other basil extracts are used in some Ayurvedic treatments for skin diseases, including acne.

When used for the treatment of acne, Basil Essential Oil is often blended into topical formulations that contain other essential oils and active ingredients.

Basil Essential Oil has been purported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral and diuretic properties. Although there are few clinical research studies about the efficacy of Basil Essential Oil for the treatment of acne, the observed antibacterial properties of this essential oil warrant further investigation.

Basil Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of several biologically-active molecules, such as Linalool and Methyl Chavicol.

References

Comparison of extraction methods for the rapid determination of essential oil content and composition of basil. Charles, et al. 1990.
Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal variations. Hussain, et al. 2008.
Inhibitory effect of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri. Bagamboula, et al. 2004.
Analysis of the essential oils of two cultivated basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) from Iran. Sajjadi, et al. 2006.
Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants used in Brazil. Sartoratto, et al. 2004.
Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Thai basil oils and their micro-emulsion formulas against Propionibacterium acnes. Viyoch, et al. 2006.
In vitro bioactivities of essential oils used for acne control. Lertsatitthanakorn, et al. 2006.
Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Kalemba, et al. 2003.
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against five strains of Propionibacterium acnes. Luangnarumitchai, et al. 2007.